Cultivation

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Roses- Morphology and Growth

Posted by David Jones on

Grow lights can be used to supplement traditional methods of nutrition and climatic conditions in greenhouses or indoor gardening to improve and elongate growing season for roses. Using smart LEDs lights can be environmentally friendly for growing, as nearly 40% reduction in energy consumption has been achieved in comparison to other grow lights. LED lights can also decrease dependence on chemical or even natural fertilizers by providing stimulus indoors that is not possible in open fields.

Read more

Roses- Morphology and Growth

Posted by David Jones on

Grow lights can be used to supplement traditional methods of nutrition and climatic conditions in greenhouses or indoor gardening to improve and elongate growing season for roses. Using smart LEDs lights can be environmentally friendly for growing, as nearly 40% reduction in energy consumption has been achieved in comparison to other grow lights. LED lights can also decrease dependence on chemical or even natural fertilizers by providing stimulus indoors that is not possible in open fields.

Read more


Better Light Penetration in Soil Improves Yield

Posted by David Jones on

Light is necessary not just for the aerial parts of plants but also the roots. The role of light in manipulating root health and their contribution to increasing yield rarely receives the attention it deserves. Besides germination, light is also essential for the growth of roots and absorption of nutrients.

Germination

During germination, the radicle, hypocotyl, and epicotyl in the seed are activated to produce the new plant. The radicle produces the roots, while the aerial part of the plant develops from the hypocotyl and epicotyl. The hypocotyl gives rise to the lower stem, and the epicotyl produces leaves and upper stem (1).

Light as Stimulus

The initiation of root growth depends on light stimulus. Light usually travels around 4–5 mm through the soil. Beyond 10 mm, only 1% of light gets through the soil (2, 3). However, even this little light is enough to stimulate the growth of roots away from the light into the soil (3).

The elongation of hypocotyls which is necessary to bring it and the epicotyl out of the soil also needs stimulation by light. As hypocotyl elongates, it grows through the soil up towards the source of light (4). For this to occur, light needs to go through the soil to reach the hypocotyl to stimulate it.

Either red or blue light can be used, as both of them are absorbed by the seed for germination (2). Seeds which need more light to germinate should be sown shallowly so that they can get the required fluence.

Light for Radiation

In addition to light, warmth is also necessary for germination. So though the optimum temperature for root initiation during germination is 20°C, many spring cereals will begin to germinate when the soil temperature is just 4°C. Similarly, the rate of emergence of spring wheat during germination starts at 6°C and will increase with rising temperature up to 24°C (5).

Light radiation in the soil helps in raising its temperatures. So, increasing light input into soil has a two-fold benefit on germination.

Growth of Roots

In addition, soil temperature can also influence root growth. The warmth needed by roots is, however, less than what shoots require to grow, so once again any little light that reaches the soil and warms it is welcome (5).

Use of Water and Nutrients

When the soil temperature is less, water and nutrient absorption is limited, even if they are present in optimum concentrations. Neither can the roots transport the nutrients to the stems and leaves. The water needs to reach leaves where the plants produce food through photosynthesis. Without proper soil warmth, the movement of sugar and starch produced in leaves to the roots is also affected (5).

By regulating the movement of nutrients and food from and to roots, light plays a major role in maintaining robust and healthy root and shoot systems.

All Round Growth

The overall effect of light penetration into the soil is that germination is improved, and the underground activity of the plant are strengthened. A strong and well-functioning root system is essential for the plant to accumulate biomass, which in turn ultimately improves the yield, either in terms of flowers, fruits, or vegetables.

Sources

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/hypocotyl
  2. Briggs WR. 2016. Plant Biology: Seedling Emergence through Soil. Current Biology 26: 68-70.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.003

  1. M. TESTER CHRISTINA MORRIS. 1987.  The penetration of light through soil. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1987.tb01607.x
  2. Wang H. 2015. Phytochrome signaling: Time to tighten up the loose ends. Mol. Plant, 8: 540-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2014.11.021  
  3.     https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/crop1272

Read more

Better Light Penetration in Soil Improves Yield

Posted by David Jones on

Light is necessary not just for the aerial parts of plants but also the roots. The role of light in manipulating root health and their contribution to increasing yield rarely receives the attention it deserves. Besides germination, light is also essential for the growth of roots and absorption of nutrients.

Germination

During germination, the radicle, hypocotyl, and epicotyl in the seed are activated to produce the new plant. The radicle produces the roots, while the aerial part of the plant develops from the hypocotyl and epicotyl. The hypocotyl gives rise to the lower stem, and the epicotyl produces leaves and upper stem (1).

Light as Stimulus

The initiation of root growth depends on light stimulus. Light usually travels around 4–5 mm through the soil. Beyond 10 mm, only 1% of light gets through the soil (2, 3). However, even this little light is enough to stimulate the growth of roots away from the light into the soil (3).

The elongation of hypocotyls which is necessary to bring it and the epicotyl out of the soil also needs stimulation by light. As hypocotyl elongates, it grows through the soil up towards the source of light (4). For this to occur, light needs to go through the soil to reach the hypocotyl to stimulate it.

Either red or blue light can be used, as both of them are absorbed by the seed for germination (2). Seeds which need more light to germinate should be sown shallowly so that they can get the required fluence.

Light for Radiation

In addition to light, warmth is also necessary for germination. So though the optimum temperature for root initiation during germination is 20°C, many spring cereals will begin to germinate when the soil temperature is just 4°C. Similarly, the rate of emergence of spring wheat during germination starts at 6°C and will increase with rising temperature up to 24°C (5).

Light radiation in the soil helps in raising its temperatures. So, increasing light input into soil has a two-fold benefit on germination.

Growth of Roots

In addition, soil temperature can also influence root growth. The warmth needed by roots is, however, less than what shoots require to grow, so once again any little light that reaches the soil and warms it is welcome (5).

Use of Water and Nutrients

When the soil temperature is less, water and nutrient absorption is limited, even if they are present in optimum concentrations. Neither can the roots transport the nutrients to the stems and leaves. The water needs to reach leaves where the plants produce food through photosynthesis. Without proper soil warmth, the movement of sugar and starch produced in leaves to the roots is also affected (5).

By regulating the movement of nutrients and food from and to roots, light plays a major role in maintaining robust and healthy root and shoot systems.

All Round Growth

The overall effect of light penetration into the soil is that germination is improved, and the underground activity of the plant are strengthened. A strong and well-functioning root system is essential for the plant to accumulate biomass, which in turn ultimately improves the yield, either in terms of flowers, fruits, or vegetables.

Sources

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/hypocotyl
  2. Briggs WR. 2016. Plant Biology: Seedling Emergence through Soil. Current Biology 26: 68-70.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.003

  1. M. TESTER CHRISTINA MORRIS. 1987.  The penetration of light through soil. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1987.tb01607.x
  2. Wang H. 2015. Phytochrome signaling: Time to tighten up the loose ends. Mol. Plant, 8: 540-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2014.11.021  
  3.     https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/crop1272

Read more


LEDs made for Horticulture

Posted by David Jones on

LED used as grow lamps should be different from those which are used for lighting in a house, school, or office. This is because the environment which exists in a greenhouse or indoor farm, and the light needs of plants are different.

Conditions in Growing Environments

In greenhouses and indoor farms, there is far more humidity in the air than in houses. There is also some amount of natural light coming in greenhouses. Moreover, the light which plants need can defer in many aspects to what people need. This can be the colour of light, the intensity of light, light temperature or even its placement. Therefore, grow lights which just assemble generic LEDs are not very effective. In addition, there is a difference in the light environment between greenhouses and indoor farms which is just beginning to receive attention.

Ideal Grow lights

Keeping in mind the light needs that plants have, there are four aspects that should be optimally considered while producing luminaires.

Light Recipe

Plants have different needs during the growing, flowering and fruiting stages. Taking advantage of the narrow bandwidth in which LEDs occur, the correct colour combinations can be used at each stage to manipulate plants to increase their yield.

Light quality or Color

However, each colour by itself also falls within a range of wavelengths (1). These are,


Violet   : 380-450 nm

Blue : 450-495 nm

Green  : 495-570 nm

Yellow  : 570-590 nm

Orange : 590-620 nm

Red   : 620-750 nm



This means a red light with 620 nm is different from a red light of 750 nm. Science usually specifies the wavelength at which each colour should be used. When LEDs are prepared for horticulture, the specified wavelength can be used. Moreover, the wavelengths can vary for different flowers and vegetables, and so targeted spectrums for each flower or vegetable are prepared.

Light Intensity

Light intensity for horticulture lights is measured in terms of Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), where only the light spectrum used by plants called Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is measured.

In commercial flower and vegetable production, the intensity of light which is supplied to plants is as important as the colour. While this is especially true for the flowering and fruiting phases, light at specific intensities can also control pests and diseases.

Position of lighting

To ensure that plants are uniformly lit from top to bottom, inter-lighting is important and can improve yield significantly. These light units have to be designed very differently from lights which people use, and in the correct intensities so that plants are not harmed by excess radiation.

Engineering

LED grow lights which can withstand humidity are necessary for growing environments. Otherwise, they can be affected just like any other electronic gadget. Damages can reduce LEDs’ efficiency and also its lifespan.

What is not important for plants is colour temperature which is measured in Kevin. This is important for people and will differ based on the tasks they undertake; they do not need to be considered in improving plant yield.

LEDS for Plants

Since the grow lights have to meet specific needs, LEDs customized and manufactured for horticulture will be more effective in improving plant performance and yield. These do not cost more than generic LEDs, so it is worth spending time and effort in finding the right kind of LED grow lights for your plants.

Read more

LEDs made for Horticulture

Posted by David Jones on

LED used as grow lamps should be different from those which are used for lighting in a house, school, or office. This is because the environment which exists in a greenhouse or indoor farm, and the light needs of plants are different.

Conditions in Growing Environments

In greenhouses and indoor farms, there is far more humidity in the air than in houses. There is also some amount of natural light coming in greenhouses. Moreover, the light which plants need can defer in many aspects to what people need. This can be the colour of light, the intensity of light, light temperature or even its placement. Therefore, grow lights which just assemble generic LEDs are not very effective. In addition, there is a difference in the light environment between greenhouses and indoor farms which is just beginning to receive attention.

Ideal Grow lights

Keeping in mind the light needs that plants have, there are four aspects that should be optimally considered while producing luminaires.

Light Recipe

Plants have different needs during the growing, flowering and fruiting stages. Taking advantage of the narrow bandwidth in which LEDs occur, the correct colour combinations can be used at each stage to manipulate plants to increase their yield.

Light quality or Color

However, each colour by itself also falls within a range of wavelengths (1). These are,


Violet   : 380-450 nm

Blue : 450-495 nm

Green  : 495-570 nm

Yellow  : 570-590 nm

Orange : 590-620 nm

Red   : 620-750 nm



This means a red light with 620 nm is different from a red light of 750 nm. Science usually specifies the wavelength at which each colour should be used. When LEDs are prepared for horticulture, the specified wavelength can be used. Moreover, the wavelengths can vary for different flowers and vegetables, and so targeted spectrums for each flower or vegetable are prepared.

Light Intensity

Light intensity for horticulture lights is measured in terms of Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), where only the light spectrum used by plants called Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is measured.

In commercial flower and vegetable production, the intensity of light which is supplied to plants is as important as the colour. While this is especially true for the flowering and fruiting phases, light at specific intensities can also control pests and diseases.

Position of lighting

To ensure that plants are uniformly lit from top to bottom, inter-lighting is important and can improve yield significantly. These light units have to be designed very differently from lights which people use, and in the correct intensities so that plants are not harmed by excess radiation.

Engineering

LED grow lights which can withstand humidity are necessary for growing environments. Otherwise, they can be affected just like any other electronic gadget. Damages can reduce LEDs’ efficiency and also its lifespan.

What is not important for plants is colour temperature which is measured in Kevin. This is important for people and will differ based on the tasks they undertake; they do not need to be considered in improving plant yield.

LEDS for Plants

Since the grow lights have to meet specific needs, LEDs customized and manufactured for horticulture will be more effective in improving plant performance and yield. These do not cost more than generic LEDs, so it is worth spending time and effort in finding the right kind of LED grow lights for your plants.

Read more